An anti-Semitic and nationalistic milieu emerged in Dresden in the last third of the 19th century. It had a fundamental influence on generating a powerful anti-Semitism, as well as on the rise of the regional NSDAP and its ‘Jewish policies’ after 1933. Even though there were relatively few Jews in the city, the National Socialists and their Saxon leader Martin Mutschmann undertook numerous initiatives to eliminate the ‘Jewish problem’. This article traces the fundamentals and practices of National Socialist ‘Jewish policies’ in the Saxon capital of the Gau from 1933 to 1945. These went far beyond the typical deprivation, social exclusion, and persecution of Jewish citizens that developed elsewhere in Germany.